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    Kalligram Foundation

CLA-Report: Implementation of European Charter of Regional or Minority Languages in Slovak Republic

CLA prepared an alternative report on implementation of European Charter of Regional or Minority Languages in Slovak Republic. The goal of the report is to provide a brief overview on the implementation of the Charter in Slovakia – especially to draw attention to shortcomings of the Charter implementation regarding imperfect or contradictory legislation as well as other issues raised during the implementation process.

Project: Language Policy in Slovakia

Related legislation: European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

CLA-Analysis: Law on Minorities

The aim of the project is to create analytical and legislative foundation to draft the so-called law on minorities by analyzing the Slovak legislation and the existing minority laws in Central and Eastern Europe.

Project: Financing of the Minority Culture in Slovakia

CLA-Analysis: Commentary of the Slovak Government to the Amended Hungarian Status Law

The Center for Legal Analyses-Kalligram Foundation compared the annotation of the Slovak government to the Hungarian Status Law with the relevant passages of the international law respectively with other valid status laws.

Project: Comparative Analyses on the so-called Hungarian and Slovak Status Law

CLA-Analysis: The History and Future of Positive Discrimination in Slovakia

This study discusses the practical and theoretical legal arguments surrounding the concept of positive discrimination (affirmative action), and examines the possibilities of acceptance or refusal of positive discrimination policies by the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic. Although the legal questions are the dominant subject of this report, authors highlight also the importance of extra-legal factors which often influence the attitude of the courts towards positive discrimination. They address the controversial historical experiences with positive discrimination in Slovakia and touch upon the current trends in Slovak political environment as well.

Project: Positive Discrimination in U.S., Europe and Former Czechoslovakia

CLA-Analysis: The Comparative Analyses of Minority Laws in CEE

The purpose of the analysis is to compare the legislation that various Central European countries have enacted for the purpose of protecting and promoting the interests of their ethnic minority populations, to analyze their effectiveness and to suggest what future innovations might entail. CLA-Kaligram looks at the constitutions and relevant laws in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and the Ukraine, and focus primarily on the structure of the bodies set up to promote minority rights and on the laws governing minority education.

Project: Financing of the Minority Culture in Slovakia

CLA-Opinion: The Frowein Report

The European Parliament discussed on September 21, 2002 the so-called Frowein Report completed on September 12, 2002. This report including the legal analysis of the Beneš Decrees and the criteria of the Czech Republic’s accession to the European Union. CLA-Kalligram has prepared a short opinion about the report.

Project: The Beneš Decrees

Document: MFA: Non Paper on the Presidential Decrees of the Czechoslovak Republic


CLA-Analyses: Comparative Analyses on the Preambula of the Constitutions of the Visegrad Countries

The preambula of the constitution is usually not a topic for legal analyses, legal mind are attracted by more exact things, such as laws or contracts. However the preambulas - first of all in Central and Eastern Europe - can serve to enlight the state of the society and serve to better understand of the litter of the constitutions. The aim of the analyses is to compare the the preambulas of the constitutions of Visegrad countries - Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia - in order to find common points and understanding and points out the diferences as well.

Project: Amendments of the Slovak Constitution

CLA-Analyses: Monitoring of the Hungarian Status Law in Slovakia: Implementation Report

The Act on Legal Status of Hungarians Living in Neighbouring Countries that was adopted by the Hungarian Parliament in May 2001, sparked off a political tumult in countries neighbouring with Hungary, especially in Romania and Slovakia. The analysis attempts to summarize the conditions of the reception of the Act in Slovakia and the aspects of its implementation. Center for Legal Analyses-Kalligram Foundation (CLA-Kalligram) systematizes and monitors those persons in the public eye who manifested themselves in any way to the Act and who are able to have an effect on people. Above all, CLA-Kalligram considers the measures and the attitude of the government, the Slovak diplomacy, the parliament and the political parties relevant.

Project: Comparative Analyses on the so-called Hungarian and Slovak Status Law

CLA-Analyses: Memorandum on Affirmative Action Policies in Slovakia

This memorandum prepared by the Center for Legal Analyses-Kalligram Foundation aims at describing the legal background of the solution of the problem of Roma assistants as well as at creating a conceptual basis of affirmative action policies (positive discrimination or positive action) projects in Slovakia.

Project: Positive Discrimination in U.S., Europe and Former Czechoslovakia

CLA-Analyses: Brief on Beneš Decrees

The aim of the analyses is to explore the issue of Benes Decrees exclusively from legal point of view, from the viewpoints of the European and the Slovak legislation. The Center for Legal Analyses-Kalligram Foundation is not covering the historical responsibility of the Beneš decrees, but, as a result of insufficient data not exhaustingly, tries to outline such cases, which still could have an impact on the present Slovak legal system and on the Hungarian ethnic minority in Slovakia.

Project: The Beneš Decrees

Office of the Hungarians Abroad (Hungary): About the so-called Beneš-decrees (in Hungarian)

Document: The Beneš Decrees and Slovakia (Information material of Ministry of Justice)

The Frohwein Report on the Beneš Decrees

New CLA-Project: European Law and Slovakia

The Proposed Anti-Discrimination Legislation in Slovakia: Act on Equal Treatment (in Slovak)

The Beneš Decrees (Slovak and English)

EU support for Roma communities in Central and Eastern Europe

The Frohwein Report on the Beneš Decrees

European Law in Slovakia

The publication of the Center for Legal Analyses-Kalligram Foundation, "European Law in Slovakia" offers deeper analysis of the legal aspects of the awaited integration of Slovakia to the European Union, it`s impact on the content and form of the legal sources in Slovakia, on the creation and application of law, on the position of the Slovak constitutional organs as well as on the performance of the legal professionals.

The publication was borned as the outcome of the wide collective of authors. The ambition of the publication is to provide judges, advocates, commercial lawyers, academics, politicians, state officers as well as businessmen and other involved professionals with the frame of the basic problems of the application of the European law in Slovakia. We hope, that it will provide useful source of information to the on-going debate about the position of Slovakia in the new Europe.

Civil and Minority Rights

The textbook entitled "Civil and Minority Rights" issued by the Kalligram Foundation and Lilium Aurum Publishing House recently is used from September 1, 2002 in the secondary grammar schools in Hungarian teaching language in Slovakia. The textbook was prepared by the lawyers of the Center for Legal Analyses-Kalligram Foundation with the help of external experts, namely Erzsébet Bernáth, Gizella Szabómihály, Lajos Mészáros and Gyula Bernáth.

1. Short History of Democracy
2. Democracy and Rule of Law
3. Human and Minority Rights
4. Basic Human Rights
5. Political Rights
6. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
7. International System of Minority Rights
8. Minority Institutions in Slovakia
9. Activities and Impact of Non-Governmental Organizations in Slovakia
10. National Minorities in Slovakia
11. Langauge Rights of Minorities in Slovakia
12. Ombudsman
International Minority Rights Documents
The Center for Legal Analyses is grateful for the support of the Ford Foundation